A Peek at Kubernetes v1.30

A quick look: exciting changes in Kubernetes v1.30

It’s a new year and a new Kubernetes release. We’re halfway through the release cycle and have quite a few interesting and exciting enhancements coming in v1.30. From brand new features in alpha, to established features graduating to stable, to long-awaited improvements, this release has something for everyone to pay attention to!

To tide you over until the official release, here’s a sneak peek of the enhancements we’re most excited about in this cycle!

Major changes for Kubernetes v1.30

Structured parameters for dynamic resource allocation (KEP-4381)

Dynamic resource allocation was added to Kubernetes as an alpha feature in v1.26. It defines an alternative to the traditional device-plugin API for requesting access to third-party resources. By design, dynamic resource allocation uses parameters for resources that are completely opaque to core Kubernetes. This approach poses a problem for the Cluster Autoscaler (CA) or any higher-level controller that needs to make decisions for a group of pods (e.g. a job scheduler). It cannot simulate the effect of allocating or deallocating claims over time. Only the third-party DRA drivers have the information available to do this.

​​Structured Parameters for dynamic resource allocation is an extension to the original implementation that addresses this problem by building a framework to support making these claim parameters less opaque. Instead of handling the semantics of all claim parameters themselves, drivers could manage resources and describe them using a specific “structured model” pre-defined by Kubernetes. This would allow components aware of this “structured model” to make decisions about these resources without outsourcing them to some third-party controller. For example, the scheduler could allocate claims rapidly without back-and-forth communication with dynamic resource allocation drivers. Work done for this release centers on defining the framework necessary to enable different “structured models” and to implement the “named resources” model. This model allows listing individual resource instances and, compared to the traditional device plugin API, adds the ability to select those instances individually via attributes.

Node memory swap support (KEP-2400)

In Kubernetes v1.30, memory swap support on Linux nodes gets a big change to how it works – with a strong emphasis on improving system stability. In previous Kubernetes versions, the NodeSwap feature gate was disabled by default, and when enabled, it used UnlimitedSwap behavior as the default behavior. To achieve better stability, UnlimitedSwap behavior (which might compromise node stability) will be removed in v1.30.

The updated, still-beta support for swap on Linux nodes will be available by default. However, the default behavior will be to run the node set to NoSwap (not UnlimitedSwap) mode. In NoSwap mode, the kubelet supports running on a node where swap space is active, but Pods don’t use any of the page file. You’ll still need to set --fail-swap-on=false for the kubelet to run on that node. However, the big change is the other mode: LimitedSwap. In this mode, the kubelet actually uses the page file on that node and allows Pods to have some of their virtual memory paged out. Containers (and their parent pods) do not have access to swap beyond their memory limit, but the system can still use the swap space if available.

Kubernetes’ Node special interest group (SIG Node) will also update the documentation to help you understand how to use the revised implementation, based on feedback from end users, contributors, and the wider Kubernetes community.

Read the previous blog post or the node swap documentation for more details on Linux node swap support in Kubernetes.

Support user namespaces in pods (KEP-127)

User namespaces is a Linux-only feature that better isolates pods to prevent or mitigate several CVEs rated high/critical, including CVE-2024-21626, published in January 2024. In Kubernetes 1.30, support for user namespaces is migrating to beta and now supports pods with and without volumes, custom UID/GID ranges, and more!

Structured authorization configuration (KEP-3221)

Support for structured authorization configuration is moving to beta and will be enabled by default. This feature enables the creation of authorization chains with multiple webhooks with well-defined parameters that validate requests in a particular order and allows fine-grained control – such as explicit Deny on failures. The configuration file approach even allows you to specify CEL rules to pre-filter requests before they are dispatched to webhooks, helping you to prevent unnecessary invocations. The API server also automatically reloads the authorizer chain when the configuration file is modified.

You must specify the path to that authorization configuration using the --authorization-config command line argument. If you want to keep using command line flags instead of a configuration file, those will continue to work as-is. To gain access to new authorization webhook capabilities like multiple webhooks, failure policy, and pre-filter rules, switch to putting options in an --authorization-config file. From Kubernetes 1.30, the configuration file format is beta-level, and only requires specifying --authorization-config since the feature gate is enabled by default. An example configuration with all possible values is provided in the Authorization docs. For more details, read the Authorization docs.

Container resource based pod autoscaling (KEP-1610)

Horizontal pod autoscaling based on ContainerResource metrics will graduate to stable in v1.30. This new behavior for HorizontalPodAutoscaler allows you to configure automatic scaling based on the resource usage for individual containers, rather than the aggregate resource use over a Pod. See our previous article for further details, or read container resource metrics.

CEL for admission control (KEP-3488)

Integrating Common Expression Language (CEL) for admission control in Kubernetes introduces a more dynamic and expressive way of evaluating admission requests. This feature allows complex, fine-grained policies to be defined and enforced directly through the Kubernetes API, enhancing security and governance capabilities without compromising performance or flexibility.

CEL’s addition to Kubernetes admission control empowers cluster administrators to craft intricate rules that can evaluate the content of API requests against the desired state and policies of the cluster without resorting to Webhook-based access controllers. This level of control is crucial for maintaining the integrity, security, and efficiency of cluster operations, making Kubernetes environments more robust and adaptable to various use cases and requirements. For more information on using CEL for admission control, see the API documentation for ValidatingAdmissionPolicy.



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